While firearms may differ in superficial features, the vast majority share the same baisic parts. These parts would include the barrel, chamber, bolt, trigger group, sights, stock, forestock, and magazine
The Barrel is the metal tube through wich the bullet travels through. the barrel can either be rifled, has channels which induce spinning on th bullet, or smooth.
The chamber is located at the base of the barrel and is used to hold the cartrige or shotshell ready for shooting.
The bolt is a movable metal block that moves rounds into and out of the chamber. The bolt is also used to seal the chamber so that the round may be fired. Many bolts also contain mechanisms such as a firing pin.
The trigger group can include but is not limited to; the trigger gaurd, trigger, and hammer. The trigger is a small lever that starts the firing process. The trigger gaurd is the piece that protects the trigger from being squeezed or bumped accidently. The hammer is what strikes the firing pin after the trigger has been tripped.
There are an many types of sights as there are weapons. the main purpose of a sight is to give the shooter an idea of where the round he or she is sending down range may be going.
The stock of a rifle or shotgun may be constructed out of either wood or a composite material. The part that is pressed against your shoulder while firing is called the butt stock.
This is also often constructed out of wood or a composite material. The forestock is where one would grip the front end of the rifle near the barrel. the fore stock is meant to protect the hand from the barrel as they tend to heat up during sustained fire.
The magazine is a container on a repeating firearm that houses multiple cartriges before its loaded into the chamber for firing. Magazines are often tubes or boxes attached to the reciever.